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Chakrapani Dutta (DuttaSharma) was a Vaid Brahman of Bengal who wrote books on Ayurveda such as "Chakradutta" and others. Chakrapani Dutta was the Rajavaidya of Great King Laxman Sen {some says rajVaid of King Nayapala (1038 - 1055)}. It is believed by some practitioners that Chakradutta is the essence of Ayurveda.

Ayurveda has always been preserved by the people of India as a traditional "science of life", despite increasing adoption of European medical techniques during the time of British rule. For several decades the reputation and skills of the various Ayurvedic schools declined markedly as Western medicine and Western-style hospitals were built. However, beginning in the 1970s, a gradual recognition of value of Ayurveda returned, and today Ayurvedic hospitals and practitioners are flourishing throughout all of India. As well, the production and marketing of Ayurvedic herbal medicines has dramatically increased, as well as scientific documentation of benefits. Today, Ayurvedic medicines are available throughout the world.
Alternative medicine Ayurveda (Devanagari) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is presently in daily use by millions of people in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and indirectly through it being the major influence on Unani, Chinese and Tibetan Medicine. The word "Ayurveda" is a tatpurusha compound of the word āyus meaning "life" or "life principle", and the word veda, which refers to a system of "knowledge". Thus "Ayurveda" roughly translates as the "knowledge of life". According to Charaka Samhita, "life" itself is defined as the "combination of the body, sense organs, mind and soul, the factor responsible for preventing decay and death, which sustains the body over time, and guides the processes of rebirth" According to this perspective, Ayurveda is concerned with measures to protect "ayus", which includes healthy living along with therapeutic measures that relate to physical, mental, social and spiritual harmony. Ayurveda is also one among the few traditional systems of medicine to contain a sophisticated system of surgery (which is referred to as "salya-chikitsa").

Ayurveda Overview

According to the Ayurvedavatarana (the "descent of Ayurveda"), the origin of Ayurveda is stated to be a divine revelation of the ancient Indian creator God Lord Brahma as he awoke to recreate the universe. This knowledge was passed directly to Daksha Prajapati in the form of shloka sung by Lord Brahma, and this was in turn passed down through a successive chain of deities to
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was later revised by Charaka, and renamed to Charaka Samhitā (encyclopedia of the physician Charaka). Other early texts of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhitā and the Sushruta Samhitā. The system was orally transferred via the Gurukul system until a script came into existence.

The earliest scripts would have been written on perishable materials such as Taalpatra and Bhojapatra, which could not be readily preserved. The script was later written on stone and copper sheets. Verses dealing with Ayurveda are included in the Atharvaveda, which
implies that some form of Ayurveda is as old as the Vedas. Ayurvedic practices have also evolved over time, and some practices may be considered innovations upon earlier Vedic practices, such as the advances made during the Buddhist period in India.

Hinduism attributes the genesis of Ayurveda to several theories in which the knowledge is believed to have been passed on from being to being, initially, through its realization by the divine sages, and gradually into the
Lord Indra, the protector of dharma. According to this account, the first human exponent of Ayurveda was Bharadvaja, who learned it directly from Indra. Bharadvaja in turn taught Ayurveda to a group of assembled sages, who then passed down different aspects of this knowledge to their students. According to tradition, Ayurveda was first described in text form by Agnivesha, in his book the Agnivesh tantra. The book was later redacted by Charaka, and became known as the Charaka Samhitā.

Another early text of Ayurveda is the Sushruta Samhitā, which was compiled by Sushrut, the primary pupil of Dhanvantri, sometime around 1000 BCE. Dhanvantri is known as the Father of Surgery, and in the Sushrut Samhita, the teachings and surgical techniques of Dhanvantri are compiled and complemented with additional findings and observations of Sushrut regarding topics ranging from obstetrics and orthopedics to ophthalmology. Sushrut Samhita together with Charaka Samhitā, served as the textual material within the ancient Universities of Takshashila and Nalanda. These texts are believed to have been written around the beginning of the Common Era, and are based on a holistic approach rooted in the philosophy of the Vedas and Vedic culture.

History of Ayurveda

Documented references to the precise timing of the origins of Ayurveda are not available. The age of Ayurveda has been established on the basis of correlating the evidence with other disciplines as well as circumstantial evidence. Ayurveda is said to have been first compiled as a text by Agnivesha, in his book Agnivesh tantra, which was written during Vedic times. The book
human sphere by a complex system of mnemonics. Details of Ayurvedic traditions vary between writers, as is expected when oral traditions are transcribed from multiple sources. The earliest authors of Ayurvedic manuscripts recorded divergent forms of the tradition.

Development of Ayurveda

Ayurvedic practice was flourishing during the time of Buddha (around 520 BC) , and in this period the Ayurvedic practitioners were commonly using Mercuric-sulphur combination based medicines. In this period mercury, sulphur and other metals were used in conjunction with herbs to prepare the different medications.[citation needed] An important Ayurvedic practitioner of this period was Nagarjuna, a Buddhist herbologist, famous for inventing various new drugs for the treatment of ailments. Nagarjuna was accompanied by Surananda, Nagbodhi, Yashodhana, Nityanatha, Govinda, Anantdev, Vagbhatta etc. The knowledge of Ayurveda progressed a lot during this period, including development of newer and more effective medicines, and is therefore termed as the Golden Period of Ayurveda.

After emerging victorious at the Kalinga War, Emperor Ashoka (304 BC-232 BC) influenced by the Buddhist teachings, banned any bloodshed in his kingdom in 250 BC. Therefore many Ayurveda practitioners, who were practicing surgery along with medicine, left the surgical intervention and adopted totally new medicinal treatments. In this period, Ayurveda again evolved and flourished with the invention of new drugs, new methodology and new innovations. The practice of the accompanying surgery slowly died out during this period.

During the regime of Chandragupta Maurya (375-415 AD), Ayurveda was part of mainstream Indian medical techniques, and continued to be so until the colonisation by the British.

Gurukul system of Ayurveda

In the earlier days of its conception, the system of Ayurvedic medicine was orally transferred via the Gurukul system until a written script came into existence.

In this system, the Guru gave a solemn address where he directed the students to a life of chastity, honesty, and vegetarianism. The student was to strive with all his being to heal the sick. He was not to betray patients for his own advantage. He was required to dress modestly and avoid alcohol or drugs. He was to be collected and self-controlled, measured in speech at all times. He was to constantly improve his knowledge and technical skill. At the patient's home, he was to be courteous and modest, directing all attention to the patient's welfare. He was not to divulge any knowledge about the patient and his family. If the patient was incurable, he was to keep this to himself if it was likely to harm the patient or others.

The normal length of the student's training appears to have been seven years. Before graduation, the student was to pass a test. But the physician was to continue to learn through texts, direct observation (pratyaksha), and through inference (anumāna). In addition, the vaidyas attended meetings where knowledge was exchanged. The practitioners also gained knowledge of unusual remedies from laypeople who were outside the huffsteter community such as hillsmen, herdsmen, and forest-dwellers.

Tridosha system

The central concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the theory that health exists when there is a balance between three fundamental bodily humours or doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

Vata is the impulse principle necessary to mobilize the function of the nervous system
Pitta is the energy principle which uses bile to direct digestion and hence metabolism into the venous system.
Kapha is the body fluid principle which relates to mucous, lubrication and the carrier of nutrients into the arterial system.

All Ayurvedic physicians believe that these ancient ideas, based in the knowledge discovered by the Rishis and Munis, exist in harmony with physical reality. These Ayurvedic concepts allow physicians to examine the homeostasis of the whole system. People may be of a predominant dosha or constitution, but all doshas have the basic elements within them.

Ayurvedic tastes

Ayurveda holds that the tastes of foods or herbs have specific physiological effects. Those tastes that transform after digestion (Vipaka) are more powerful.

Sweet - Madhura
Sweet foods nourish, cool, moisten, oil, and increase weight
Sour - Amla
Sour foods warm, oil, and increase weight
Salty - Lavan
Salty foods warm, dissolve, stimulate, soften, oil, and increase weight
Bitter - Katu
Bitter foods cool, dry, purify and decrease weight
Pungent - Tikta
Pungent foods warm, dry, stimulate, and decrease weight
Astringent - Kasaya
Astringent foods cool, dry, reduce stickiness.


Ayurveda operates on the precept that various materials of vegetable, animal, and mineral origin have some medicinal value. The medicinal properties of these materials have been documented by the practitioners and have been used for centuries to cure illness and/or help maintain good health. Ayurvedic medicaments are made from herbs or mixtures of herbs, either alone or in combination with minerals, metals and other ingredients of animal origin. The metals, animals and minerals are purified by individual processes before being used for medicinal purposes.

Writers and compilers of Ayurvedic literature such as Charaka, Sushruta, Vagabhatta, Bhav Mishra, Shaligram and others have written about the qualities, characteristics and medicinal uses of the herbs, mineral, metals, chemicals, animal parts, cooked food articles, natural foods, fruits etc. Among them, the Bhav Prakash Nighantu, written by Bhav Mishra, is known for its detail .The composition of the Nighantu part (Ayurvedic Materia Medica) of the Bhav Prakash is part of the classical book. The details of the medicinal herbs are given according to the nature, effects, and curative properties as observed by the Ayurvedic practitioners.

Ayurvedic literature has been written by several authors in languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu and more recently, in English.The Shaligram Nighantu was written in Sanskrit. The Banaushadhi Chandrodaya was written in Hindi.The Indian Materia Medica was written in English.

Panchakarma and Ayurvedic massage

Panchakarma (the five actions or modalities) is a collection of purification techniques that Ayurveda prescribes for some diseases and for periodic cleansing. A course of Pancharkarma typically includes a short-term dietary prescription, massage, herbs, and may include purgatives, sweat baths, medicated enemas, and nasal cleansing.

Ayurvedic massage is a form of treatment for various age related and other common disorders. Some of the advantages which can be cited are pain relief, improved circulation, stress relief, better sleep, flexibility, athletic performance and emotional benefits [citation needed]. Massage therapy can soothe pain, relax stiff muscles, and reduce the swelling that accompanies arthritis [citation needed]. Advocates claim that, with ayurvedic massage, deep-seated toxins in the joints and tissues are loosened and released into the system for elimination through natural toxin-release processes. Ayurvedic massage is especially developed in Sri Lanka and the Indian state of Kerala.

Teachings of Ayurveda

Ayurveda teaches two main principles:

Preservation of health - how to maintain health and what to do to keep the human body healthy and fit to avoid sickness.

Methods, medicine, and tactics for management of diseases and ailments to cure and procure a return to normal health.

Ashtang Ayurveda: eight sections of Ayurveda

Traditional Ayurveda speaks of eight sections, known as Astanga Ayurveda:

1- Shalya Chikitsa describes surgery/surgical treatment and midwifery.

2- Shalakya (otology, rhinology, dentistry and ophthalmology) deals with the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the eye, ear, nose, throat, nape of the neck, cervical problems, head, teeth, mouth, etc.

3- Kāyāchikitsā (internal medicine) deals with the diagnosis, treatment and management of body ailments.

4- Bhuta vidya (psychopathology/psychology/microbiology) deals with the diagnosis, treatment and management of psychological, psychogenic, somatopsychic and psychosomatic disorders.

5- Kaumāryabhritya deals with pediatrics, gynaecology & obstetrics.

6- Agad Tantra (toxicology, medical jurisprudence) describes the treatment of poisons (toxins).

7- Rasayana Tantra (science of rejuvenation) deals with maintaining longevity, intellectual behavior, rejunevating the body and general health.

8- Bajeekaran Tantra (science of aphrodisiacs/maintenance of vigor) promotes sexual power, strengthens the body, vigor, etc.
The basic motive of Ayurveda is to keep the healthy person healthy and to cure the ill.


It could be said that the simple essence of Ayurveda is knowledge and awareness of the qualities of nature – called gurvadi gunah. By understanding the qualities inherent in the environment, in food, in activities, etc., one gains an appreciation of their effects on the individual constitution through the principle of similarities; i.e., that similarities cause increase while dissimilarities cause decrease. Thus hot qualities in the environment or diet will increase hot qualities in the body.

The gurvadi gunah are listed in Vāgbhata's Ashtānga Hridayam as:

1.Guru (heavy) – laghu (light)
2.Manda (slow) – tikshna (quick, sharp)
3.Hima (cold) – ushna (hot)
4.Snigdha (unctuous) – ruksha (dry)
5.Slakshna (smooth) – khara (rough)
6.Sandra (solid) – drava (liquid)
7.Mrdu (soft) – kathina (hard)
8.Sthira (stable) – cala (mobile)
9.Sukshma (subtle) – sthula (gross)
10.      Vishada (non-slimy) – picchila (slimy)

Since everything in the material world possesses combinations of the 20 qualities, Ayurveda postulates that every material process or object can either harm or heal a person by influencing that person's unique original constitution (called prakrti). An Ayurvedaic practitioner will assess the qualities of a disorder, the patient's unique prakrti, and his/her influencing factors to arrive at a treatment plan. The treatment plan will consist of using herbs, therapies, diet, etc., with opposite qualities so as to assist the patient in re-establishing their prakrti.

The five elements

According to the ancient Sankhya cosmology, on which Ayurveda is based, the "five great elements" (Panchamahabhuta); combine in different proportions to form the material world. Each element possesses different amounts of the above-mentioned gunas; thus each element has its unique qualitative nature.

The elements are:

1.Akasha – aether
2.Vayu or Pavan – air or wind
3.Agni or Tejas – fire
4.Ap or Jala – water
5.Prithvi or Bhumi – earth

Maulik Siddhant: basic principles

Every medical science has some basic principles on which the structure of the science is built and fabricated. Ayurveda has its own Maulik Siddhant ("Basic / fundamental Principles"), upon which the theory of Ayurveda stands. Some of these Maulik Siddhants or Fundamental prinicples are given below:

Dosha: There are three dosha, or bodily elements. These have been compared with the bodily humours of medieval Western medicine. Ayurvedic medical philosophy holds that proper equilibrium of the dosha keeps the human body in health and disequilibrium causes disease, thus dosha are also considered as Aetiological factors of diseases and also predisposing factors of diseases.

Dosha Bhed: Each Dosha is classified in five parts according to their functions, thus they are called 'Dosha-bheda'. When Doshas are in normal condition, their functions are normal in the body. In other words, Dosha-bheda is related to the physiological functions of the body for which they are selected. If these dosha bhed functions became abnormal, it creates the pathophysiology of the organ's concerned. The pathophysiology of Dosha Bhed is similar to the Physiological basis of diseases.

Dhatus: abnormal pathology: Pathological basis of diseases
Malas: Catabolic products, Ayurvedic Malas substances; helps in diagnosis of diseases
Agni: Digestive Hunger: Ayurveda-Agni : related to metabolism
Oaj: estimation of Vitality / equivalent to "vital power" or "life force" Prakrati
Deh Bal: Constitution / body build /body strength

Temperaments: weather, time, Domecile

Doshas: etiological factors of Ayurveda

Doshas are also called Tridosha, which means three dosha. Dosha is a Sanskrit word, which means "Abnormal". It is one of the main part of the Maulik Siddhant (Basic Principles) of Ayurveda. There are three primary Doshas and they are Vata, Pitta and Kaphha. Their existence in human body is considered singly, but when combined two doshas, that condition is known dwidoshaj that means combination of two dosha, which may be Vata-Pitta or Vata-Kaphha etc. When all three doshas combined each other, this situation is known as Tridoshaj or Sannipataj that means the combination of all three doshas.

The 3 main doshas (sometimes translated into English as humours) are: Vata (combination of the space and air elements), Pitta (analogous to the fire element), and Kapha (combination of water and earth elements). However there is no equivalent word to translate "Dosha" in the English language, because the concept of Humour is different to the concept of 'Ayurvedic Tridosha'.

In Ayurveda, all bodily processes are believed to be governed by a balance of the 3 doshas. Whichever dosha appears to dominate a person's behavior and physique is called his constitution type. Each constitution type has particular strengths and susceptibilities. 'Tridoshas are considered similar to Aetiological factors responsible to derange normal health condition. There is an interesting parallel with the Western concept of athletic (pitta), leptosomic (vata) and pycnic (kapha) constitutional types.

Vata, composed of space and air, governs all movement in the mind and body and must be kept in good balance. Too much vata leads to, "worries, insomnia, cramps and constipation. Vata controls blood flow, elimination of wastes, breathing and the movement of thoughts across the mind." Vata activates the nervous system, hearing and speech; and expresses as enthusiasm and creativity. Vata also controls the other two principles (Pitta and Kapha) and is usually the first cause of disease. Another word for Vata is Vayu - it is the more traditional Sanskrit word for air.

Those who are classified as Vata prakruthi tend to have lighter frames, and are either short or tall and thin. Their skin tends to be dry and cold with dark, thin hair. They have dark brown or grey eyes. Movements and speech are quick and sleep is light, interrupted, and fitful. Mentally, they are restless and have lots of ideas. They are vivacious, enthusiastic, creative and imaginative, but are fearful, anxious, and insecure.

Vata doshas' corresponding colours are warm and gentle, such as yellow, ochre, or brown.

Pitta is said to be composed of fire; it governs, "all heat, metabolism and transformation in the mind and body. It controls how we digest food, how we metabolize our sensory perceptions, and how we discriminate between right and wrong." Pitta must be kept in balance, too. "Too much Pitta can lead to anger, criticism, acidity, ulcers, rashes and thinning hair.". A balanced Pitta mind makes one a good leader with a warm personality.

Pitta types are generally average physically. They tend to have fine, soft, red or fair hair (though Pittas have been known to have dark hair.) Eyes tend to be blue, grey, or hazel. Their moods change slowly and they are busy people, usually achieving much in their lives. They are more intellectual and speech is clear, sharp, and precise. They are fiery, angry and judgmental.

The Pitta doshas' corresponding colours are cool, calming colours such as blue, green, or purple.

Kapha is the watery humour, consisting of the water and earth elements. "Kapha cements the elements in the body, providing the material for physical structure. This dosha maintains body resistance....Kapha lubricates the joints; provides moisture to the skin; helps to heal wounds; fills the spaces in the body; gives biological strength, vigor and stability; supports memory retention; gives energy to the heart and lungs and maintains immunity...Kapha is responsible for emotions of attachment, greed and long-standing envy; it is also expressed in tendencies toward calmness, forgiveness and love." Too much Kapha leads to lethargy and weight gain, as well as congestion and allergies.

Kaphas' body types are sturdier and thicker than the other body types. Hair is thick and lustrous and eyes are blue or brown. They have the best strength and endurance and have a slow, steady pace. Mentally they are calm, steady, and stable. They can be greedy and possessive but are caring and not easily irritated.

Kapha governs bright, vibrant colours such as red, pink, and orange.

Tridosha existence in the human body

According to Ayurveda, the site of the existence of Tridosha has been established by keen observers. Charaka, Sushruta and others have determined the locations in the human body where tridosha mainly exist. Bhav Praksha clearly locates the part of human body where Tridoshas are presents.

Vata: exist below the naval and lower part of body. {Draw Horizontal line from naval to round back to naval}
Pitta exist in between the naval line and epigastrium line {Draw horizontal line from xephoid process of sternum -epigastrium- to round back to epigastrium}
Kaphha exist in the upper part of the body above from the epigastrium line, including the thoracic cavity, upper limbs and head.

Although the main site of Tridoshas are as described above, they work with each other in their respective functions to make equality and harmony in the smooth functioning of the body. In Ayurvedic tradition they play a comprehensive role for accurate diagnosis and treatment of the human body.

Tridosha Bhed: the physiological basis of diseases

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject.
Please help improve the article with a good introductory style. Ayurveda divides each Dosha by establishing their functions or physiology in five parts/kinds/bheda. This is known physiology or pathophysiology of the main dosha into the dosha-bheda.

Ayurveda have its own principles for perceiving the Physiological basis of diseases.
These three main Doshas are divided into the five each separate dosha-bhed according to their functions allotted in the human body.

Vata have five bhed 1.Prana Vata 2.Apana Vata 3. Samana Vata 4. Udana Vata 5. Vyana Vata
Pitta' have five kinds 1. Sadhaka Pitta 2. Bhrajaka Pitta 3. Pachaka Pitta 4. Alochaka Pitta 5. Ranjaka Pitta
Kaphha have five Bhed {kinds} 1. Kledaka Kaphha 2. Avalambaka Kaphha 3. Bodhaka Kaphha 4. Shleshaka Kaphha 5.Tarpaka Kaphha

Short details of the functions of the Vata five kinds
1.Prana vata: the vayu existed in Oral Cavity, in head, in throat, in Ear, in tongue, in chest and in heart. It helps in Deglutition of food and water, act of swallowing, acts of sneezing, spitting, eructations, acts of respiration etc. this vayu-bhed helps to place properly the Vital elements like Pitta and Kaphha, Satva, Raj, Tam and Maan, panch gyanendriya in their own work and functions. When this vayu-bhed deranged, causes repiratory disorders, pulmonary problems, bronchitis, Asthama, Coryza, Hoarseness, Hiccough, Tuberculosis and Lungs disorders etc.

2.Apana vata: is existed Sigmoid Colon and Rectum [Paquaashaya], Testicles, Scrotum, Urinary Bladder, Male and Female Genital Parts, Navel, Loins and Groins. The Function of this Vayu-Bhed is the excretion of the Stool, Urine, Semen, Menstrual discharges, expulsion of full term baby at proper time. When this bhed becomes abnormal, it causes Urinary Stones, Frequent Urination, Polyuria, difficult, painful, obstructive, burning urination, Urinary bladder problems, Heamorrhoids, prolapsus of Rectum, Fistula, constriction of Anus, anomalies of Semen, Semen related problems, Obstruction of Flatus etc.

3.Samana vata: is existed near at 'Pachak Agni' [Digestive fire], in Stomach and duodenum. Its function is to help to digest food, to maintain the vitality of digestive power and help to isolate the "Ras Dhatu", Stool, Urine. It helps to regulate the process of sweating, dosha excretion and water expulsion process. When this Vata-bhed becomes abnormal, creates the loss of Appetite, diminished hunger, indigestion, loose stool, tympenitis, etc. It helps to assimilate the food and food contents and finally help to supply the assimilated matter to blood stream and Heart.

4.Vyana vata: is existed in whole body. Sapta Dhaut (All Seven Vital Elements) are carried and transferred to the Vital Part of the human body, by holding its own natural action. Acts of contraction, relaxion, spasmodic effects, colic, pain, neuralgia, aches, inflammation, rigidity, paralysis etc. are produced by the Vyan Vayu, when it deranged. It causes also Fever, diarrhoea, heamorrhagic conditions, in any part of the body.

5.Udana vata: is existed at Navel, Thoracic Cavity, Chest, Throat and Throat pit. The functions are act of speech, act of talking, act of singing, enthusiasm, mental strength and capacity support, helps to make body strong, brightens colour and texture of skin. When it deranges, produces diseases of eyes, mouth, nose, ear, larynx, pharynx, head, vertex complaints each.

1.Sadhaka pitta is situated at Cardiac region. It supports and develops individual intelligence, intellectual capacity, natural qualities of human, perception, conception, experience, concentration, mental capacity, memory, behavior etc. When is deranged, creates Fear, Anxiety, Anger, Uncontrolled Emotions, Maniacal problems, forgetfulness etc.

2.Pachaka pitta is situated in between Pakashay [Pancreas] and Amashay [Stomach]. It supports to nourish all Seven Dhatus step by step in their established increasing order. Its work is to digest the food, whatever is eaten and churn and converts food in small particles. It maintains the human body temperature and warmth of body etc. When it deranges, creates sensation of Chilliness, coldness and Dhatu Kshaya etc.

3.Ranjaka pitta is situated in Liver and Spleen. Its function is to provide good quality of digestive and assimilative power.

4.Bharajaka pitta is situated in the Skin. All Skin problems are covered by its action. However, its area of functions are in the whole body.

5.Alochaka pitta is situated in the Eyes and Eye cavity. All Ophthalmic problems are covered by this Dosha bhed. Problems related to Vision, Ophthalmopathy and the organs near the eyes etc.

Kaphha bhed
1.Kledaka kaphha is situated in the stomach. It provides support to lubricate the joints, head, nourishing the Vital parts.

2.Tarpaka kaphha is situated in the head. It nourishes the brain. It supports the Vital functions of senses, of nose, eyes, tongue, taste etc. It helps to increase the performance of the intellectual behaviour of the brain like knowledge, excuse, intelligence, memory etc.

3.Shleshaka kaphha is situated in between two joints or layers. It provides lubrication in joints to save the vital parts from friction by forming layer in between the smaller and bigger joints.

4.Bodhaka kaphha is situated in tongue, taste buds, salivary glands, oral and mouth cavity, taste of food is perceived.

5.Avalambaka kaphha is situated in the Chest, Thoracic cavity, Problems of Lungs, pulmonary disorders, Heart, Nape of Neck, Thyroid, Thymus, Pituitary Glands, Neck, Cercvico-thoracic region, upper extremities both etc. Problem in these parts are covered by this Kaphha bhed.

Sapta Dhatu: the pathological basis of diseases

Ayurveda has established its own Pathological Basis of disease conditions. According to Ayurveda, our body constitution is made up of Dhosas Dhatus and Malas; when an equilibrium is meant between 3 of them body is deprived of any disease and vice-versa. All 3 are equally important and when considering the DHATUS, as they form the visible part of the body and pathological changes associated can be easily understood. They are divided into Seven parts. These Seven Dhatus are again divided according to the dominance of the Tridosha status.

The Sapta Dhatus [Seven Vital elements] are considered to be:

Short descriptions of these elements:
1- Rasa Dhatu: The syndromes are found in the patient, if Ras Dhatu is in imbalance stage. The symptoms are; No desire for food, perverted taste. Diminished hunger, unable to feel the real taste of the food, insufficient saliva, nausea, loss of Appetite, heaviness feeling in body. After meal, after physical exertion, sleepiness in day time, bodyache, feels aching like pain in wholebody, sensation as if having temeparature, fever like sensation, feels as if entering in a dark place, Jaundice like syndromes, assimilative disorders, sexual weakness, impotency like symptoms, weak and lethargy feeling, weight loss with sick feeling, emaciation, white hairs, skin shrinkage, old look in young age.

Modern Ayurved experts understand that Ras [Fluid] Dhatu: Derived from the digested food and it nourishes each and every tissue and cell of the body and is analogous to the plasma.

2- Rakta Dhatu: Skin diseases, Dermatitis, Erythema, Lichen, Ringworm, Urticaria, Allergic reactions, Spleenomegaly, Stomatitis, Boils, Dandruff, seborrhoic capatis, eczema, moles, inflammation of rectum, anus, of glans penis, bloody leucorrheal discharge, swelling, Skin discharges, Leucoderma, Leprosy, black patches and spots, scabies, Ichthyosis, Psoriasis. All Anomalies of Blood, etc.

Modern Ayurvedic experts understand that RAKTA [blood] DHATU regarded as the basis of life, analogous to the circulating blood cells. It not only nourishes the body tissues, but provides physical strength and colour to the body. Hb% TLC, DLC, ESR, infections, blood sepsis, problems related to blood serum is covered by this Dhatu.

3- Maamsa Dhatu: Glands, Buboes, Abscess gland, tumours, cysts, ulcers, cancerous glands and cancerous ulcers, warty growth, corn, warts, lymphadenopathy, tonsillitis, hard flesy, extra fleshy growth, hardness of muscles, fibrositis, myositis, tendinitis, rigidity, shortness of muscles, tendons and ligaments. Anomlies of Flesh and muscular system etc.
Modern Ayurvedic experts understand that MAANS [the muscle tissues]: its function is to provide physical strength and support for the MEDA DHATU.

4- Meda Dhatu: Deposition of extra fat, obesity, accumulation of Fat, early syndromes of Polyuria, Glycosuria, growth of glands, fat due to hyperglyceamia, excessive sweating, etc.

Modern experts understand, MEDA DHATU; consiste of adipose tissue providing support to Asthi Dhatu. It also lubricates the body.

5- Asthi Dhatu: Extra Bony growth, extra formation of Teeth, tooth problems, caries of tooth, caries of Bone, Osteoporosis, Ostitis, Calcium Metabolism, weak bones, calcium deposits in joints, anomalies of calcium, formation of Renal Calculus, Gall Bladder calculus, problem related to skeletal system etc.

Modern Ayurvedic experts thinks that ASTHI DHATU: comprising of bone tissue, including cartilages. It s main function is to give support to the MAJJA DHATU and provide support to MAANS Dhatu, Serum Calcium etc.

6- Majja Dhatu: Pain in joints, fear, unconsciousness, collapse, seeing dark in day light, problems of bone marrow and reticulo-endothelial system, extra hard root like formation in joints, anomalies of Bone marrow and reticuloendothelial system etc.
Modern Ayurvedic experts thinks MAJJA DHATU: denoting the yellow and red bone marrow tissue, its main function is to fill up the Asthi and to oleate the body.

7- Shukra Dhatu: Anomalies of Semen, semen contents, semen quality, impotency, incomplete erection, impotency due to insufficient quantity of semen, desire for coition but fails, infertility, miscarriage, irregular menstrual cycles, painful menstruation, other menstrual problems, Pelvic Inflammatory diseases. Problem related to male and female reproductive systems, genito urinary male and female disorders etc.

Tridosha effect on the Sapta Dhatus

Sapta Dhatus are affected by the Tridosha. For example, when Rakta Dhatu is affected by the 'Pitta Dosha', the condition is known as 'Rakta-Pitta'. 'Rakta-pitta' presents syndromes equal to Haematomasis, Haemophillia, purpura conditions. When Rakta is affected by the Vata Dosha, the condition is known as Rakta-Vata, the syndromes are equal to Gout and Uric Acid diathesis. When Kaphha affects the Rakta-Dhatu, the condition is Bloody Dysentery, Bloody Mucous Colitis etc.

Malas: the catabolic products
Ayurvedic Malas or bodily wastes are three in number, and aid in diagnosis i.e:
  1.'Pureesh' [Stool]
2.'Mootra' [Urine]
3.'Swed' [Sweat]

Agni: digestive fire
Concept of Ayurveda-Agni is very important in Ayurveda. It is instructed by the practitioners of the Ayurved that Agni [digestive fire]should be maintained of sick persons.

Ojas: vital power/vital force
Sushrut writes about Oaj that the last remaining conclusive material of the Sapta Dhatu, is known Oaj. In other words Oaj is known as 'Bal' [Bodily strength]. Some says that Oaj is equivalent to 'Vital force'. When Oaj is less than the normal limit, as a consequence it creates Unknown Fear, Constant Anxiety, Anxiety Neurosis, Worries, trouble to senses and sensory organs, weakness of the joints, low enthusiasm, Low Vital Power, Weak vigour etc. When Oaj is high than the normal limit, it creates more allertiveness, aroused senses, hurriedness etc.


Panchakarma is a high profile process of internally cleaning and purifying the entire human body, as described in Ayurvedic Science. It aims not only to cure the disease but also to prevent the further recurrence of the particular disease. Only healthy men can take this therapy. Children and elderly people are weak. Women by nature don't require Panchakarma therapy.

There are five steps to complete the process.

The process is still practiced today, after more than 3000 yrs, without changing the line of treatment. Many Panchakarma centers have opened in large and small cities all over India and Sri Lanka, where specially qualified Ayurvedic practitioners provide the panchakarma treatment. In Sri Lanka and South India, there is still big Ayurvedic Centers exists, (India)in Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and etc. Among them only Kerala is ahead in Panchakarma Therapy with world class facilities. High quality Centers are also located in Sri Lanka in the very south of the island in the Southern Province nearby Matara and Kottegoda.

The Eight Armed Ayurveda

Ayurveda was formally organized into eight sections or branches called Astanga (eight-armed) Ayurveda. A founding sage was chosen at the founding medical conference to head a committee on each branch and to write the defining text. All the texts were written in Sanskrit, the language of the Aryans. This formed the basis for the different schools and traditions that evolved over the ensuing centuries. The names of the chairman from each branch are known, but many of the texts were lost and only available as a result of references from existing texts.

The eight branches of Ayurveda

Internal medicine - Kayachikitsa Tantra
Surgery - Shalya Tantra
Ears, eyes, nose and throat - Shalakya Tantra
Pediatrics - Kaumarabhritya Tantra
Toxicology - Agada Tantra
Purification of the genetic organs - Bajikarana Tantra
Health and Longevity - Rasayana Tantra
Spiritual Healing - Bhuta Vidya

Internal Medicine
Kayachikitsa Tantra is the Ayurvedic branch that deals with internal medicine treatment (chikitsa). Common internal diseases such as fever, diarrhea, tuberculosis etc. are found here. Adherents claim that this is the most well developed branch of Ayurveda. Lord Atreya Punarvasu founded the school of internal medicines. Lord Atreya lived in the area of Punchanada, the area of Punjab, India. As a student of Bharadwaja, he is believed to have lived about seven hundred years BC. He had six devoted and advanced disciples called Agnivesha, Bheda, Jatukarna, Parasara, Harita and Ksarapani. Lord Atreya encouraged each of them to write unique books about internal medicine. As a result of this command, they each wrote a book entitled according to their personal name, including the Agnivesha Samhita, the Bheda Samhita, and the Harita Samhita etc. Of these, the Agnivesha Samhita was judged by the doctors of the time to be the best, most authentic and most complete text of internal medicine. As a result, it was handed down through the centuries. All the original copies have been lost, but Charaka, a famous Ayurvedic scholar who lived circa 1st century AD, renovated this book from an original. The other texts written by the disciples of Atreya Punarvasu, except for the much smaller Harita Samhita, have never been found.

Lord Atreya's school of internal medicine continues to the present day, and remains the basis of the traditions of the Ayurvedic physicians of Nepal, India, Pakistan etc. Throughout the centuries, there have been many famous Ayurvedic scholar physicians who have preserved the unique knowledge of Ayurveda as well as contributing what advocates claims are new understandings of disease treatment. Centuries have passed, but it is claimed the basic principles of Ayurvedic internal medicine have not changed while the methods and treatments have continued to evolve.

Shalya Tantra is defined as the section of Ayurvedic surgery. The school of surgery was founded and run by Dhanwantari Divodasa. A contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu, he was the king of Kashi, a section of Banarasa, India. He had many devoted disciples. Some of the ones whose names are known include Susruta, Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhra, Puskalavati, Karavirya and Gopurakshita. As with the students of Lord Atreya, they all were asked to write unique texts on surgery. Their texts are known by their names such as Susruta Samhita, Aupadhenava Samhita etc. All these texts except the Susruta Samhita were lost.

Susruta was a son of Kaushika, and lived in the area of Koshi River, Nepal. The text of Susruta is considered the best, most authentic and most complete book of Ayurvedic surgery. In addition, the Susruta Samhita presents in detail the entire fundamental principles and subjects of Ayurveda. In fact, the Susruta Samhita is the only original book dating from the great conference that talks in detail about the eight sections of Ayurveda. Nagarjuna, a famous surgeon of the 1st century AD, renovated the Susruta Samhita.

The surgical school of Divodasa is no longer flourishing. The practice of surgery today is limited only to minor operations such as the lancing of boils, handled by the few holistic (general practice) Ayurvedic physicians. In the history of Ayurveda, during the medieval period, the physicians (Vaidyas) could be called holistic or general practice healers because they were trained in all the different subjects of Ayurveda. Such general medical training is of benefit for common people or village doctors. But in practice, such training without the support of specialists was counterproductive. For example, the ancient Ayurvedic knowledge of surgery was well developed in the time of the Rishis and Munis, and was prestigious and well known throughout the ancient world. The medieval healers, however, did not preserve nor develop this tradition, because they had little time to study and practice surgery with all its complex knowledge and specialized manual skills.

Ears, Eyes, Nose and Throat
Shalakya Tantra is defined as the Ayurvedic division of otorhinolaryngology (ENT) and ophthalmology, dealing with the diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. Eye specialist Videhadhipati Janaka, the King of Videha, ran the ancient school of Shalakya Tantra. Videha was located within what is now known as the district of Janakapura in Nepal. Janaka, like the scholars heading each of the other schools, was charged with compiling the practical knowledge gained by different physicians of his era in his field of Shalakya Tantra. He wrote the first authentic textbook in the field, the Videha Tantra. This text was lost. However, the physician Susruta, his well-known contemporary and the head of the surgical school, quoted sections of the Videha Tantra in detail in his classic Susruta Samhita, devoting an entire section to the Shalakya Tantra.

In the years following the origin of the school of Videhadhipati, numerous scholars--Janaka, Nimi, Kankayana, Gargya, Shataki, Saunaka, and Chakshusya, among others-- contributed their unique knowledge to this field of disease. Their original commentaries and books are not available, having also been lost. Our knowledge of them comes from existing references to their books. One of the most important sources is the Madhava Nidana, written by Madhava in the 13th Century. Atankadarpana by Sri Kanthadatta in the 15th century also contains many commentaries. This Ayurvedic section has not developed. A few of its practices are still practiced by general practitioners who have limited knowledge.

Kaumarabhritya Tantra is defined as the Ayurvedic section of pediatrics, dealing with children's health and children's diseases. The school of pediatrics was founded and run by Maricha Kashyapa, the contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu. He lived in Gangadwara in the area of Haridwara, India. He had many disciples, Vriddha Jivaka being one of them. The original text of Vriddha Jivaka written under the guidance of Maricha Kashyapa is called Kashyapa Samhita or Vriddha Jivaka Tantra. It was lost, but Vatsya, a famous pediatrician of 5th century A.D, renovated this text from an original, so it is now available. In this school, the names of Parvataka, Bandhaka, and Hiranyaksa are known as important specialists and writers. Their texts are not available, but references to their texts are found in different commentaries.

The school of pediatrics has been preserved in the tradition of Buddhist physicians of Nepal, who are well known as the spiritual healers. Advocates of this school of ajurveda assert that all diseases of children have to be treated with the basic theory of spiritual healing that is based upon religious practices.

Agada Tantra is defined as a section of toxicology; practitioners claim to be able to deal with food poisoning, snakebites, dog bites, insect bites etc. The school of toxicology was founded and run by Kashyapa, also known as Vriddhakashyapa, another contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu. He lived in Taksashila, Pakistan. His text was called the Kashyapa Samhita. This, however, is a different book than the Kashyapa Samhita of pediatrics. This text is not available now but the references of this text are found mentioned in different commentaries. Some other texts written by Alambayana, Ushana, Saunaka, and Latyayana were known to exist. However except for references to them, the original texts are no longer available.

The traditional practice of toxicology is still practiced by different families of Vishavaidyas (poison doctors) who claim to be specialists in toxicology. In fact, their knowledge is quite limited (especially compared to the knowledge attributed to earlier ayurvedic physicians) but villages still use these practices to attempt to deal with poisonous bites. In ancient times, it was the job of Vishavaidyas to protect members of the royal families from being poisoned, as well to poison enemies of the kings.

Purification of the Semen and Uterus
Advocates argue that Bajikarana Tantra is the science of purification of male and female genetic organs. The main aim of this science is to provide knowledge about sex, and to determine and teach techniques and practices that are important to produce healthy children. The study and practice of this subject has no specific text or school of specialists, and is included as a part of Ayurvedic internal medicine training. The knowledge gained in this field historically has always been presented in the texts of internal medicine. For example the special chapter of Bajikarana Tantra included in Charaka Samhita is claimed to be very worthwhile, as is the knowledge found in the texts of Susruta, Bagbhata (Vagbhata) and others.

Good Health and Longevity
Avocates define Rasayana Tantra as the science of practices promoting long life and good health. It claims todeals with the problems of untimely old age and poor immunity. As with semen and uterus purification, this subject is not located in any specific text or tradition of specialists. The unique knowledge gained by Rishis and Munis in this field, in general, is recorded in the texts of internal medicine. The present prestige and success of Ayurvedic internal medicine is largely dependent upon the successes of Rasayana Tantra medical practices.

In the medieval period, there were many renowned Siddhas who claimed to have the power to control death. In general, the Siddhas were not doctors, but religious philosophers and practitioners, of whom most were less advanced spiritually than the legendary Rishis and Munis. They were interested in immortality, and so were drawn to the Rasayana Tantra. As a result of their interest and investigations, Ayurvedic "alchemy" developed, primarily using purified heavy metals combined with other unique and often very potent medicinal substances. The Siddhas brought to light many new recipes for rejuvenation, and caused a revolution in the Ayurvedic theory of treatment.

Because many of the alchemical medicines are poisonous in their pure form, they are often illegal outside India and Nepal. Ayurvedic physicians maintain that their purification methods remove all toxicity, but this has not been confirmed by modern science. Because of this, the importation and use of many Ayurvedic medicines into Europe, America or other developed areas of the world is controversial and sometimes legally prohibited. Heavy metal contamination with mercury, lead etc has been documented, as well as cases of poisioning from ayurvedic remedies, and remains a major concern.

Ayurvedic alchemy is divided into two schools, the Hindu school and the Buddhist school. The head of Hindu school was the physician Adinatha Siddha and the head of Buddhist school was the physician Nagarjuna. In their lineage are listed the names of many famous Siddhas who contributed to the development of alchemical medicines.

Spiritual Healing
Bhuta Vidya is asserted to be a science of spiritual healing. It claims to deal primarily with the mental diseases, children's diseases, and diseases which do not follow the basic Ayurvedic theory of Tridosha balance. This subject does not have a specific text. Rather it is directly linked with the Atharva Veda and other religious texts. The theory of spiritual healing, in general, is based upon chanting or sound therapy, called Mantra in Sanskrit. Mantras are composed using specific vowels and consonants. Hindu and Buddhist religious practitioners believe that the repetition of mantras links them with deities, and yields supernatural powers which can be used to cure many diseases. Almost all religious texts contain many different Mantras composed by Rishis, Munis and Siddhas. The priests of different eastern religious sects during special ceremonies transmit the Mantras to their devoted disciples. This tradition of using religious ceremonies to transmit the Mantras still exists with the families of priests. In one sense, the practice of spiritual healing connected to the activities of priestly lineage has never broken its ancient spiritual connections. The traditional priest families of Nepal, India etc. still claim to have good reputations for their skills as spiritual healers.

List of herbs and minerals in Ayurveda

Ayurveda (Devanagari) is a form of traditional medicine in use primarily in India. Ayurveda believes that various materials of vegetable, animal, and mineral origin have some medicinal value. The medicinal properties of these materials are time tested and have been used for centuries in ayurvedic medicines to cure illness and/or help maintain health.

Ayurvedic medicaments are made from herbs or mixtures of herbs, either alone or in combination with minerals, metals and other ingredients of animal origin. The metals, animals and minerals are purified by individual processes before being used for medicinal purposes. Impurified materials are not allowed to be used as medicine.

The forms of Ayurvedic medicaments are:

Fresh juice of herbs
Quath : Crushed herbs, used as decoction or tea for internal and external uses
Churna : Fine powdered herbs, used as medicine with water or in food for internal and external uses
Taila : Herbs cooked in edible oil according to rules laid down for internal and external uses
Ghrat/Ghrit : Herbs cooked in special butter
Asav/Arista/Sura : a kind of light wine obtained after fermentation of herbs
Arka : A distillation of herbs
Rasausadhi/Kharliya Rasayan : Herbs mixed with metals, minerals and animal kingdom ingredients
Bhasma : Ashes
Parpaty : combinations of Metals, Minerals, Animal Kingdom ingredients and Herbs
Kshar/Lavan/Salt/Drava : these are specially prepared medicaments
Guggula based medicaments
Lauha Bhasam : Mandoor Bhasam based medicaments
Avaleha/Modak/Paak/Prash : Herbs cooked in Jaggery or sugar
Bati/Gutika/Goli : Mixtures of medicines shaped in pills, pillules or tablets for ease of administration
Pralep/Anjan/Varti/Dhoop : Liniments, drops, paint, paste etc. for external uses

Commonly used herbs and minerals

Botanical (Latin) Name ~ Common (English) Name ~ Sanskrit Name

        Claimed Therapeutic Use
     (According to Ayurveda)

Acacia concinna ~ Acacia ~ Shikakai
Useful in billious affections, jaundice, malarial fever, prevtive to flatulence, mild laxative

Acacia nilotica ~ Indian Gum Arabic Tree ~ Babool
Demulcent, astringent, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, styptic, diarrhoea, dysentry, diabetes,

Acorus calamus ~ Sweet Flag ~ Vacha
Bitter tonic, ague, habitual constipation, atonic dyspepsia, flatulence, paralytic nervous affections, colic, epilepsy, dropsy, glandular diseases, rheumatoc swellings, useful for children's ailments teething etc.

Adhatoda vasica ~ Malabar Nut ~ Vasaka
For comfort from bronchitis, whooping cough & bronchial asthma. To support lung functions. Has immune system-boosting properties.

Aegle marmelos ~ Bael Tree ~ Bael
For intestinal problems such as amoebic dysentery & diarrhoea. Is digestive, anthelmintic, & anti-inflammatory, useful in irritable bowel syndromes and inflammatory condition of bowels.

Allium sativum ~ Garlic ~ Lasuna
To control excess conversion of lipids & cholesterol.

Aloe vera ~ Indian Aloe ~ Kumari
Useful in ophthalmic disorders, mild laxative, tonic, increases semen quality, cure vata dosha, poisonous effects, hepatospleenomegaly, spleen and liver disorders, cystic formation, hydrocele, kaphha fever, glands, anomalies of blood, anomalies of skin.

Andrographis paniculata ~ The Creat ~ Yavatika
Used in malaria fever, enlargement of liver, chronic and obstinate fever, dropsy, edema, removes constipation, appetiser, useful in infant's disorders such as diarrhoea, colic, vomiting etc.

Anethum sowa ~ Indian Dill ~ Satahva
Useful in improving hunger, good appetiser, anti-febric, vermifugal, digestive, abdominal colic, intestinal colic, ophthalmic disorders, pelvic inflammatory disease conditions, analgesic, body pain.

Asparagus racemosus ~ Asparagus ~ Shatavari
To nourish the female reproductive system, promote lactation.

Azadirachta indica ~ Neem ~ Neem
For skin disorders. Has blood purifying & immune-boosting properties. as an anti-bacterial, anti-fungal agent.

Bacopa monnieri ~ Bacopa ~ Brahmi
For improving alertness. As an anti-anxiety agent.

Balsamodendron mukul ~ Indian Bdellium Tree ~ Guggulu
Anti-spasmodic, emmenagogue, stimulant, tonic, alterative demulcent, useful in rheumatism, nervous diseases, glands and scrofulous diseases, blood purifier, useful in chronic wounds which do not heal easily.

Benincasa hispada ~ White Pumpkin ~ Kushmanda
As a food nourished body, vigour, purifies blood, appetiser, easy to digest, removes constipation, normalise bowel movements / as a remedy useful in mental disorders, epilepsy, mania, psychological disorders and helps to cure all mental diseases and their conditions.

Betula utilis ~ Himalayan Birch ~ Bhurjapatra
In ear disorders, bile disorders, anomalies of blood, psychological disorders, anti-obesity, anti-toxin.

Boerhaavia diffusa ~ Boerhaavia ~ Punarnava
For efficient kidney & urinary functions. In urinary tract infections.

Capsicum annuum ~ Red Pepper ~ Katuvira
Aroused digestive fire, removes kaphha dosha, produce burning sensation, removes indigestion, anti-cholera, helps to heal obstinate wounds, removes hoarseness, sleepiness and perversion of taste, useful in loss of senses and weak pulse condition.

Cassia fistula ~ Golden Shower Tree ~ Aragvadha
FRUIT-BODY:Mild laxative, Anti-fever, useful in Cardiac or Heart problems, Rakta Pitta, Hematemesis, Hemorrhages, Arthritis, Vatavyadhi, Colic, Eructations, Acidity and acidic eructations, ROOTS: Very strong purgative, should not be used alone

Cedrus deodara ~ Deodar Cedar ~ Devadaru
BARK and STEM is used: creates sweating, creates urination, Anti-vata, eliminates Skin disorders, Anti-febril, Anti-edema, Arthritis, Joints pain, Joints swelling, Antitussive, Vermifugal, anomaly of Blood, anomaly of urine etc.

Cinnamomum camphora ~ Camphor ~ Karpoora
useful in kaphha, thirst, obesity, burning sensations, throat problems, intestinal worms, mouth freshener, analgesics, antitusive, antipyeratic, excessive sweats, beneficial effects when taken in small quantity [50mg]in Low blood pressure and asthama.

Citrus grandis ~ Pomelo ~ Mahanimbu
Vata-kaphha nashak, mild laxative, digestive, appetiser, loss of appetite, abdominal colic, worms, vomiting, nausea

Citrus limon ~ Lemon ~ Nimbaka
use as food, increased taste, increased hunger, digestive, help to pass abdominal wind, flatus

Citrus medica ~ Citron ~ Bijapura
useful in heart disorders, abdominal colic, Gulm, vomiting, nausea, indigestion, heamorrhoids

Cucumis sativus ~ Cucumber ~ Trapusha
Diuretic, useful in heamatamesis, heamorrhages, bleeding, cold in nature, as a food to renal stone patient

Cuminum cyminum ~ Cumin ~ Shvetajiraka
SEEDS: smell increasing the taste of food, increased taste, appetiser, Cholegague, useful in abdominal colic, flatulence, wind formation, offensive flatus, vermifugal, dysentry, diarrhoea, Gulma, indigestion, inflammatory condtion of bowels, renal calculus, gonorrhoea, obstruction of urine, nausea, vomiting etc.

Daucus carota ~ Carrot ~ Garjira
SEEDS: useful in flatulence, renal disorders, pathophysiology of small and large intestines, salpingitis, Impotency, Female genital disorders, ROOT: vermifugal, spleenomegaly, physical weakness, cholecystitis, problem before delivery, cardiac problems, piles, colic burning sensation, asthama, hiccough, mouth freshener, EXTERNAL: Burns, abscess

Eclipta alba ~ Thistles ~ Bhringaraja
JUICE:useful to teeth, skin and hairs, indicated for the treatment of Kaphha-vata disorders, cough, bronchitis, worms, asthama, skin diseases, oedema, mucous disorders, anemia, digestive, support and nourished body, choleggue, hepatomegaly, liver disorders, loss of appetite, vertigo, hepatospleenomegaly, piles, indigestion, headache, weak vision, EXTERNAL; Burns, skin diseases, leucoderma, hair falling, alopecia

Embelia ribes ~ False Black Pepper ~ Vidanga
FRUITS:carminative, anthelmintic, stimulant, alterative, anti-dyspeptic, anti-flatulent, skin diseases, rheumatisma, diuretic, laxative, purgative

Eucalyptus globulus ~ Eucalyptus ~ Nilgiri Taila
EXTERNAL:deodorant, useful in skin disorders, anti-vermicular, wounds us cervix, wounded piles, smells in Cold and coryza, muscular and joints pain, myopathy: INTERNAL; for excessive salivation, digestive, antipyeretic

Ficus bengalensis ~ Banyan tree ~ Vata
Kaphha pitta shamak, ,nausea, diarrhoea, bloody dysentery, heamorrhages, bleeding, dysentery, anomaly of blood, bleeding from all orifices, discoloration of skin, bloody leucorrhoea, leucorrhoea, white discharges feom vagina, help in pregnency, anomaly of urine, Prameha, ueful for childless women, increased fertility of women

Foeniculum vulgare ~ Fennel ~ Shatapushpa
used in Vata-pitta dosha, useful in mental weakness, weakness of eyesight, nausea, vomiting, weak appetite, Flatulence, abdominal wind, abdominal colic, dysentery, piles, cardiac disorders, anomaly of blood, cough, bronchitis, pulmonary disorders, anomaly of urine and urination, fever, skin disorders, weakness, burning sensations

Gaultheria fragrantissima ~ Indian Wintergreen ~ Gandapura
OIL:cures Vata, pain, stimulant, antipyeretic, brings sweats, diuretic, antispasmodic, removes pain of all nature, useful in cardiac disorders, joints pain, sciatica, flatulence, wind formation in abdomen, Rheumatic pain, myolitis

Hippophae rhamnoides ~ Seabuckthorn
BHASAM [Ashes]: used in respiratory disorders, hiccough, asthama, cough, cardiac pain, glandular swellings, rheumatism, arthritis, tuberculosis, pulmonary disorders, joints pain, increases sexual desire in male and female both, Impotency EXTERNAL: paste is applied in Pleuritis, Pneumonia, backache, painful inflammatory condition with swelling

Jasminum officinale ~ Jasmine ~ Jati
cold nature, bitter taste, increases Vata and Kaphha Dosha, useful in Burning pain wounds, anomaly of blood, Oral problems, Tooth problems, Eyes disorders, Headache, migraine, antitoxic, OIL: cold, heals wounds, anomaly of blood, useful in skin, head and ophthalmic disorders, stomatitis

Juglans regia ~ Walnut ~ Akschota
useful in facial paralysis, cervical lymphadenitis, adenitis, ringworm, edema, dropsy, swelling, fistula, opium poisoning, devermicular, purgative, laxatives, provides strength, pulmonary tuberculosis, cardiac disorders, uric acid diathesis, gout, burning sensations, rheumotoid arthritis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, dermatitis, skin disordres and anomaly of blood, blood purifier.

Lilium polyphyllum ~ White Lily ~ Kshirakakoli
useful in increasing the quantity of semen, condensed semen, increasing lactations in feeding mothers, creates sexual excitement both in male and female, increases vitality, vigour.

Mimosa pudica ~ Sensitive plant ~ Lajjalu
for gynaecological disorders, skin disorders, bleeding piles, amoebic dysentry, diarrhoea.

Mangifera indica ~ Mango ~ Amra
RAW MANGO: sour, tasteful, increases Vata & Pitta Dosha, RIPED MANGO: sweet, increases semen quality, appetiser, increases taste, wound healer, anomaly of blood.

Melaleuca leucadendra ~ Tea Tree ~ Kayaputi
useful in Hyperpyerexia, gout, uric acid, diarrhoea, skin disorders, bronchitis, cough, dermatitis, joints pain, muscular pain

Mel despumatum ~ Honey ~ Madhu
sweet, cool, easy to digest, removes constipation, better for eyes & voice, beneficial to heart, ripes wounds quickly, useful in obesity, frequent urination, hiccough, asthma, bronchitis, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, emaciation, excessive thirst, heamorrhagic tendency, faintness, burning sensation, healing wound

Mentha arvensis ~ Mint ~ Putiha

Mentha piperita ~ Peppermint
OIL and CRYSTALS: carminative, cool, analgesic, relives painful muscular conditions, smells in Cold and coryza, relives headache, sinusitis, uses both internally and externally. very powerful in action, while use internally, use very small quantity [one drop in four divided doses] with precautions

Nardostachys jatamansi ~ Musk ~ Jatamansi

Pinus roxburghii ~ Chir Pine ~ Shrivasa

Piper longum ~ Indian Long Pepper ~ Pippali

Prunus amygdalus ~ Almond ~ Vatadha

Punica granatum ~ Pomegranate ~ Dadima

Pyrus malus ~ Apple ~ Seva

Rosmarinus officinalis ~ Rosemary

Salmalia malabarica ~ Silk Cotton Tree ~ Shalmali

Santalum album ~ Sandalwood ~ Chandana

Sapindus mukorossi ~ Soapnut Tree ~ Arishta

Sesamum indicum ~ Sesame ~ Til

Sesbania sesban ~ Egyptian Rattle Pod ~ Jayanti

Shorea robusta ~ Sal Tree ~ Shala

Solanum lycopersicum ~ Tomato

Trigonella foenum-graecum ~ Fenugreek ~ Medhika

Triticum sativum ~ Common Wheat ~ Godhuma

Vetiveria zizanioides ~ Poppy ~ Ushira

Vitex negundo ~ Five-leaved Chaste Tree ~ Nirgundi

Vitis vinifera ~ Grape ~ Draksha

Wrightia tinctoria ~ Sweet Indrajao ~ Hyamaraka

Xanthoxylum alatum ~ Toothache Tree ~ Tumburu

Zinziber officinale ~ Ginger ~ Sunthi
in digestive disorders like low appetite, indigestion, nausea, vomiting & motion sickness.

~ Alum ~ Saurashtri
INTERNAL:Bloody dysentery, Dysentery, worms, Remmitent and intermittent fever, anti-tussive, EXTERNAL: Piles, wound, traumatic wounds and conditions, stings, itching, eczema, conjunctivitis, leucorrhoea, otorrhoea, gonorrhoea, gargles in pharyngitis, tonsillitis, throat problems

~ Conch Shell ~ Shankha
BHASAM [Ashes]: Loss of appetite, indigestion, peptic ulcers, dueodenal ulcers, hyperacidity, bronchitis, hepatospleenomegaly, Gulm, Asthama, cough, respiratory disorders

~ Sodium carbonate ~ Svarjikshara
INTERNAL:useful in constipation, Diuretic, Gulmanashak, Colic, pain abdominal, worms intestinal, flatulence, eructations, abdominal winds, tympenitis, Irritable bowel syndromes EXTERNAL: promotes suppuration of boils, burns, pimples, leucoderma, white patches of skin

~ Sodium Bicarbonate ~ Tankana
First purify according of Ayurveda directions: Increased digestive fire, Kaphha nashak, antitoxic, cough, bronchitis, asthama, pulmonary resoiratory disorders, antipyeritic, Gulm nashak, colic, bodyache, sensation of chilliness etc. spleenomegaly hyperacidity, diminished hunger, stomatitis EXTERNAL:eczema, ringworm, itching of skin, mouth pain in aphthea, vaginal itching, leucorrhoea, hydrocele, mammary gland inflammation, toothache, black spot on face etc.

~ Cowrie Shell ~ Varatika
BHASAM [Ash]: used in colic of all nature, mucous colitis, dysentery, hyperacidity, weak assimilation, diarrhoea, gastritis, gas formation, flatulence, excessive thirst, tympenitis, rumbling in abdomen, loss of appetite, Irritable bowel syndromes, improves digestive power, asthama, bronchitis, otorrhoea, dry cough, Tuberculosis, exhaustive disease conditions, aphthea, stomatitis etc.

~ Natural Zinc ~ Yashad Bhasma
BHASAM [Ash]: used in ophthalmic disorders, night blindness, kaphha-pitta disorders, jaundice, liver disorders, hepatitis, anomalies of urine, diebetes, asthama, cysts, glands, diarrhoea, mucous colitis, dhatu kshaya, tuberculosis, bacillary dysentry, gonorrhoea, impotency, improves digestion, beneficial in vomiting and nausea.

Current status of Ayurvedic medicine

In the early 20th century, Ayurvedic physicians began to organize into professional associations and to promote their case for national recognition and funding.[citation needed] This began to become a reality after Indian independence in 1947.

Ayurveda is now a statutory, recognised medical system of health care like other medical systems existing in India. The Central Council of Indian Medicine {CCIM} governs and recommends policies for the research and development of the system. An Encyclopedia on Ayurveda - has been developed to promote the knowledge of Ayurveda worldwide.
In certain states in India, Charak Samhita and Sushruta Samhita are included in the curriculum of modern medical courses (M.B.B.S).

Ayurvedic institutions and practitioners

Ayurvedic practitioners have been appointed as Honorary Ayurvedic Physician to the President of India. Every year on the occasion of Dhanvantari jayanti, a prestigious Dhanvantari Award is conferred on a famous personality of Medical Sciences including Ayurveda. Kerala is the leading state in India that promotes research and practices of Ayurveda. This has been attributed to Kerala's well established Ayurveda centers, Ayurveda pharmaceutical companies, and Ayurveda medical college's. Today besides Kerala, Gujarat, Maharastra, and Karnataka are also promoting Ayurveda. For example, there are many Ayurvedic centers (known as Vaidya shalas) all over Kerala.

Practice in the West

As a result of strong regulations in medical practice in Europe and America, the most commonly practiced Ayurvedic treatments in the west are massage and dietary and herbal advice.

In the United States, the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine (established by Scott Gerson) is an example of a research institute that has carried out research into Ayurvedic practices. Gerson has published part of his work on the antifungal activities of certain Ayurvedic plants in medical journals.

Several Pharmecutical companies and Academic Institutions in the west have come into conflict with Indian academic institutions and traditional Ayurvedic practitioners over the intellectual property rights of herbal products researched by the western agencies. The Ayurvedic practitioners have known about the efficacy of such products for centuries and so contend that they carry precedence with regards to patent rights on such products.

On December 1993, the University of Mississippi Medical Center had a patent issued to them by U.S patents and trademarks office on the use of turmeric (U.S. patent No. 5,401,504) for healing. The patent was contested by India's industrial research organization, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R), on the grounds that traditional Ayurvedic practitioners were already aware of the healing properties of the substance and have been for centuries, making this patent a case of bio-piracy.
After a complex legal battle, the U.S. Patents and Trademarks Office ruled on August 14, 1997 that the patent was invalid because it was not a novel invention, giving the intellectual property rights to the principle back to the traditional practitioners of Ayurveda. R. A. Mashelkar, director-general of the CSIR, was satisfied with the result, saying: "This success will enhance the confidence of the people and help remove fears about India's helplessness on preventing bio-piracy and appropriation of inventions based on traditional knowledge."

The turmeric patent was just one of the hundreds that the several academic organizations and Pharmecutical companies in the west have claimed by ignoring Ayurvedic knowledge. Vandana Shiva, a global campaigner for a fair and honest Intellectual Property Rights system, says patents on herbal products derived from Neem, Amla, Jar Amla, Anar, Salai, Dudhi, Gulmendhi, Bagbherenda, Karela, Erand, Rangoon-kibel, Vilayetishisham and Chamkura also need to be revoked.

Seven American and four Japanese firms have filed for grant of patents on formulations containing extracts of the herb Ashwagandha. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the Indian medicinal plant withania somnifera have been traditionally used for the Ayurvedic system as aphrodisiacs, diuretics and for treating memory loss. The Japanese patent applications are related to the use of the herb as a skin ointment and for promoting reproductive fertility. The U.S based company Natreon has also obtained a patent for an Ashwagandha extract. Another US establishment, the New England Deaconess Hospital, has taken a patent on an Ashwagandha formulation claimed to alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis. It is clear that the Ashwagandha plant is catching the attention of scientists and more patents related to Ashwagandha are being filed or granted by different patent offices since 1996.

Ayurvedic wisdom originated in the main Vedas as a part of way of life - a spiritual connection with spirit and nature. This is most evident reading Atharva Veda. Ayurveda was used to remove obstacles on one’s path to Self-Realization. At some point the medical aspects began to take priority over the spiritual forms of healing (ie, focusing on lifestyle, dharma and moksha. Today, these spiritual aspects of Ayurveda have taken a back seat to the medical focus. As Ayurveda becomes more commercially viable career, the spiritual aspects may continue to lose ground. Yet there are a growing number of practitioners who practice mainly these spiritual therapies and find better results than limiting their approach to the medical, physical realm.


Scientific studies and standards
Critics object to the lack of rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials of many ayurvedic products. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine states that "most clinical trials of Ayurvedic approaches have been small, had problems with research designs, lacked appropriate control groups, or had other issues that affected how meaningful the results were."

In India, scientific research in Ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. A large number of non-governmental organisations are also conducting research work on different aspects of Ayurveda. However, "even staunch advocates of Ayurveda like cardiologist Dr. M.S. Valiathan...admit that 'clinical studies that would satisfy the liberal criteria of WHO World Health Organisation have been alarmingly few from India, in spite of patients crowding in Ayurvedic hospitals"'.

Safety concerns
There is evidence that using some ayurvedic medicine, especially those involving herbs, metals, minerals, or other materials involves potentially serious risks, including toxicity.

A research study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found significant levels of toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations that were made in South Asia for sale in America. The Journal found that, if taken according to the manufacturers' instructions, this 20% of remedies "could result in heavy metal intakes above published regulatory standards". Similar studies have been performed in India, and have confirmed these results. Cases of metal toxicity from use of ayurvedic medicines are well known. Some practitioners claimed that "heavy metals are integral to some formulations and have been used for centuries. There is no point of doing trials as they have been used safely and have mention in our ancient texts."

There is a technique of detoxification applied to heavy metals and toxic herbs called samskaras, which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi although the Ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques.

An intriguing study of the effectiveness of the Ayurvedic samskaras was printed in the Journal of Postgrad Medicine:

Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance. However, the science of Ayurveda looks upon aconite as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed i.e. it undergoes 'samskaras' before being utilised in the Ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether 'processed' aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice (100% mortality at a dose of 2.6 mg/mouse) whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic (no mortality at a dose even 8 times as high as that of crude aconite). Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification.

The described detoxification is a simple chemical processing which involves four successive rounds of boiling the crude root in cow's urine (twice) and cow's milk (twice). Such processing is reasonably expected to chemically modify both toxic and proposed therapeutic components of the root. It will also lead to extraction of these compounds from the root into the boiling solvents, thereby decreasing their concentration in the final product.

It should also be noted that, while these washes appear to ameliorate the toxicity of the crude root, there is no evidence that the processed root has any therapeutic value. However, the literature is replete with instances of aconite poisoning, though no mention of specific processing is made in these poisoning cases.

"Miracle Cures"
Some critics also question the safety of those Ayurvedic drugs that are said to provide "Miracle Cures". The critics argue that simply following age-old Ayurvedic formulas is no guarantee of safety and the fundamental processes and concepts on which these ancient processes are based must be exposed to serious scientific scrutiny.

Research and innovations in Ayurveda

Research and innovations in Ayurveda are under taken by the Central Government statutory body Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha [CCRAS], which have national network of research institutes. Besides this, large number of non-government organisations are conducting research work on different aspects of Ayurveda. In the United States, the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine (established by Scott Gerson) is an example of a research institute that claims to have made modern scientific progress in Ayurvedic practices

Machine for Panchakarma
The Central Council for Research in Ayurveda (CCRAS) and IIT New Delhi, invented a new machine for Panchakarma (Ayurvedic Detoxification Therapies for the purification of skin) treatment of Ayurveda. The machine is being used in the Panchakarma section of the Central Research Institute of Ayurveda at Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi, India.

The prototype of the fully computerised multipurpose laser beam-guided 'Dhara Yanthra' has been developed, and is expected to be ready for technology transfer soon. Similarly, the partners have developed fully automated steam bath equipment, with provision for controlling the level of steam, temperature, bathing and medicated steam therapy, as demanded by the Panchakarma specialist. It also has an innovated liquid soap shower bath facility, to provide a completely hygienic and human intervention free treatment process. The product is being fine-tuned by the developers.

Seven American and four Japanese firms have filed for grant of patents on formulations containing extracts of the herb Ashwagandha. Fruits, leaves and seeds of the Indian medicinal plant withania somnifera have been traditionally used for the Ayurvedic system as aphrodisiacs, diuretics and for treating memory loss. The Japanese patent applications are related to the use of the herb as a skin ointment and for promoting reproductive fertility. The U.S based company Natreon has also obtained a patent for an Ashwagandha extract. Another US establishment, the New England Deaconess Hospital, has taken a patent on an Ashwagandha formulation claimed to alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis.

One of the most common and cheapest of Indian ayurvedic medical formulations - Triphala - is now emerging as a potential anticancer agent: studies suggest that it may have anti-cancer effects in rats and in laboratory tissue cultures.

Triphala is a combination of the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Emblica officinalis in equal proportions. These are popularly known in India as harad, behada and amla. Ayuveda practitioners claim Triphala is useful as an internal cleansing, detoxifying formula, and as a herbal laxative.

In a study titled ‘Potential of traditional Ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug’ published in the January 2006 issue of Cancer Letters, scientists at the Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, found that Triphala had the ability to induce cytotoxicity (cell death) in tumor cells but spared the normal cells.

Also, a December 2005 report in the Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research from the Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory at Jawaharlal Nehru University noted that Triphala was effective in reducing tumor incidences and increasing the antioxidant status of animal constituents.”

Another report from the Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, found that "Triphala" showed a significant cytotoxic effect on cancer cell-lines and the effect was similar on all cancer cell lines used in this study.” The results, reported in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology in February 2005, reveal that the results may be due to the action of gallic acid-a major polyphenol observed in "Triphala". The same authors had previously reported that Triphala “had promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential.”

In February 2006, scientists from the Dr. A.L. Mudaliar Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus reported that supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats, which means is that Triphala is an anti-stress agent. This study concludes that Triphala restores the noise-stress induced changes because of its antioxidant properties.

Antioxidant studies conducted at The Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Trombay revealed that all three constituents of Triphala are active, they exhibit slightly different activities under different conditions and that the mixture, Triphala, itself is expected to be more efficient due to the combined activity of the individual components. The findings were reported in the July 2005 issue of Phytotherapy Research. Two months later, scientists from BARC reported on the radio-protective ability of a component of Triphala.

Similar results were also reported from Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, when scientists claimed that “Triphala, an ayurvedic rasayana drug, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality by free-radical scavenging.” They concluded that “Triphala provided protection against both gastrointestinal and hemopoetic death”.