field of scientific enquiry. For the present we have merely more or less plausible opinions that defy reconciliation.
~ p. 57
The great decisions of human life have as a rule far more to do with the instincts and other mysterious unconscious factors than with conscious will and well-meaning reasonableness. The shoe that fits one person pinches another; there is no recipe for living that suits all cases. Each of us carries his own life-form—an indeterminable form which cannot be superseded by any other. ~ p. 69 Aging people should know that their lives are not mounting and unfolding but that an inexorable inner process forces the contraction of life. For a young person it is almost a sin—and certainly a danger—to be too much occupied with himself; but for the aging person it is a duty and a necessity to give serious attention to himself. ~ p. 125
The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1934)
Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 9, Part 1. 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 1968)
I have chosen the term "collective" because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal; in contrast to the personal psyche, it has contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals.
A more or less superficial layer of the unconscious is undoubtedly personal. I call it the "personal unconscious". But this personal layer rests upon a deeper layer, which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inborn. This deeper layer I call the "collective unconscious". I have chosen the term "collective" because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal; in contrast to the personal psyche, it has contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals. ~ p. 3-4 Why is psychology the youngest of the empirical sciences? Why have we not long since discovered the unconscious and raised up its treasure-house of eternal images? Simply because we had a religious formula for everything psychic — and one that is far more beautiful and comprehensive than immediate experience. Though the Christian view of the world has paled for many people, the symbolic treasure-rooms of the East are still full of marvels that can nourish for a long time to come the passion for show and new clothes. What is more, these images — be they Christian or Buddhist or what you will — are lovely, mysterious, richly intuitive. ~ p.7-8 Whereas the personal unconscious consists for the most part of "complexes", the content of the collective unconscious is made up essentially of "archetypes". The concept of the archetype, which is an indispensable correlate of the idea of the collective unconscious, indicates the existence of definite forms in the psyche which seem to be present always and everywhere. Mythological research calls them 'motifs'; in the psychology of primitives they correspond to Levy-Bruhl's concept of "representations collectives," and in the field of comparative religion they have been defined by Hubert and Mauss as 'categories of the imagination'... My thesis, then, is as follows: In addition to our immediate consciousness, which is of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even if we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals. ~ p.42-43 We must now turn to the question of how the existence of archetypes can be proved. Since archetypes are supposed to produce certain psychic forms, we must discuss how and where one can get hold of the material demonstrating these forms. The main source, then, is dreams, which have the advantage of being involuntary, spontaneous products of nature not falsified by any conscious purpose. By questioning the individual one can ascertain which of the motifs appearing in the dream are known to him... Consequently, we must look for motifs which could not possibly be known to the dreamer and yet behave functionally of the archetype known from historical sources ~ p. 48
The Integration of the Personality (1939)
All ages before ours believed in gods in some form or other. Only an unparalleled impoverishment in symbolism could enable us to rediscover the gods as psychic factors, which is to say, as archetypes of the unconscious. No doubt this discovery is hardly credible as yet. ~ p. 72 If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. ~ p. 285
The Psychology of the Unconscious (1943)
This world is empty to him alone who does not understand how to direct his libido towards objects, and to render them alive and beautiful for himself, for Beauty does not indeed lie in things, but in the feeling that we give to them. Where love rules, there is no will to power; and where power predominates, there love is lacking. The one is the shadow of the other. The erotic instinct is something questionable, and will always be so whatever a future set of laws may have to say on the matter. It belongs, on the one hand, to the orginal animal nature of man, which will exist as long as man has an animal body. On the other hand, it is connected with the highest forms of the spirit. But it blooms only when the spirit and instinct are in true harmony. If one or the other aspect is missing, then an injury occurs, or at least there is a one-sided lack of balance which easily slips into the pathological. Too much of the animal disfigures the civilized human being, too much culture makes a sick animal.
Psychology and Alchemy (1952)
Every archetype is capable of endless development and differentiation. It is therefore possible for it to be more developed or less. In an outward form of religion where all the emphasis is on the outward figure (hence where we are dealing with a more or less complete projection) the archetype is identical with externalized ideas but remains unconscious as a psychic factor. When an unconscious content is replaced by a projected image to that extent, it is cut off from all participation in an influence on the conscious mind. Hence it largely forfeits its own life, because prevented from exerting the formative influence on consciousness natural to it; what is more, it remains in its original form — unchanged, for nothing changes in the unconcious. The conscious mind allows itself to be trained like a parrot, but the unconscious does not—which is why St. Augustine thanked God for not making him responsible for his dreams. ~ p. 51
Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963)
Jung's autobiography, recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffé. (Pantheon Books, 1963)
Life has always seemed to me like a plant that lives on its rhizome. Its true life is invisible, hidden in the rhizome. The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
~ Closing lines of the preface.
I know every numbskull will babble on about "black man," "maneater," "chance," and "retrospective interpretation," in order to banish something terribly inconvenient that might sully the familiar picture of childhood innocence. Ah, these good, efficient, healthy-minded people, they always remind me of those optimistic tadpoles who bask in a puddle in the sun, in the shallowest of waters, crowding together and amiably wriggling their tails, totally unaware that the next morning the puddle will have dried up and left them stranded. On a phallic dream he had as a young child. ~ p. 14
Sometimes I had an overwhelming urge to speak, not about that, but only to hint that there were some curious things about me which no one knew of. I wanted to find out whether other people had undergone similar experiences. I never succeeded in discovering so much as a trace of them in others. As a result, I had the feeling that I was either outlawed or elect, accursed or blessed. ~ p. 41 My interests drew me in different directions. On the one hand I was powerfully attracted by science, with its truths based on facts; on the other hand I was fascinated by everything to do with comparative religion. [...] In science I missed the factor of meaning; and in religion, that of empiricism. ~ p. 72 As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light of meaning in the darkness of mere being. ~ p. 326
Man and His Symbols (1964)
C.G. Jung, M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande Jacobi, Aniela Jaffé (Aldus Books, 1964)
Because we cannot discover God's throne in the sky with a radiotelescope or establish (for certain) that a beloved father or mother is still about in a more or less corporeal form, people assume that such ideas are "not true." I would rather say that they are not "true" enough, for these are conceptions of a kind that have accompanied human life from prehistoric times, and that still break through into consciousness at any provocation. Modern man may assert that he can dispense with them, and he may bolster his opinion by insisting that there is no scientific evidence of their truth. But since we are dealing with invisible and unknowable things (for God is beyond human understanding, and there is no mean of proving immortality), why should we bother with evidence? ~ p. 75-76
Unsourced Carl G. Jung Quotes
A shoe that fits one person pinches another; there is no recipe for living that suits all cases. All the works of man have their origin in creative fantasy. What right have we then to depreciate imagination?
An inflated consciousness is always egocentric and conscious of nothing but its own existence. It is incapable of learning from the past, incapable of understanding contemporary events, and incapable of drawing right conclusions about the future. It is hypnotized by itself and therefore cannot be argued with. It inevitably dooms itself to calamities that must strike it dead. Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his scholar's gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with human heart throughout the world. There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul. Art is a kind of innate drive that seizes a human being and makes him its instrument. The artist is not a person endowed with free will who seeks his own ends, but one who allows art to realize its purpose through him. As a human being he may have moods and a will and personal aims, but as an artist he is "man" in a higher sense— he is "collective man"— one who carries and shapes the unconscious, psychic forms of mankind. Children are educated by what the grown-up is and not by his talk.
Death is psychologically as important as birth... Shrinking away from it is something unhealthy and abnormal which robs the second half of life of its purpose. Even a happy life cannot be without a measure of darkness, and the word happy would lose its meaning if it were not balanced by sadness. It is far better to take things as they come along with patience and equanimity.
Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves. Follow that will and that way which experience confirms to be your own. Great talents are the most lovely and often the most dangerous fruits on the tree of humanity. They hang upon the most slender twigs that are easily snapped off. I cannot love anyone if I hate myself. That is the reason why we feel so extremely uncomfortable in the presence of people who are noted for their special virtuousness, for they radiate an atmosphere of the torture they inflict on themselves. That is not a virtue but a vice.
I could not say I believe— I know! I have had the experience of being gripped by something that is stronger than myself, something that people call God. (In a film, when asked if he believed that God exists.) I have never encountered a difficulty that was not truly the difficulty of myself. If one does not understand a person, one tends to regard him as a fool. If people can be educated to see the lowly side of their own natures, it may be hoped that they will also learn to understand and to love their fellow men better. A little less hypocrisy and a little more tolerance towards oneself can only have good results in respect for our neighbor; for we are all too prone to transfer to our fellows the injustice and violence we inflict upon our own natures.
In all chaos there is a cosmos, in all disorder a secret order.
India did not pass me by without a trace: it left tracks which lead me from one infinity to another infinity. It all depends on how we look at things, and not how they are in themselves.
It was most essential for me to have a normal life in the real world as a counterpoise to that strange inner world. My family and my profession remained the base to which I could return... Knowing your own darkness is the best method for dealing with the darknesses of other people. Knowledge rests not upon truth alone, but upon error also. Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health. Man's task is to become conscious of the contents that press upward from the unconscious. Nobody, as long as he moves about among the chaotic currents of life, is without trouble. Nothing has a stronger influence psychologically on their environment and especially on their children than the unlived life of the parent. Nothing worse could happen to one than to be completely understood. Often the hands will solve a mystery that the intellect has struggled with in vain. Our heart glows, and secret unrest gnaws at the root of our being. Dealing with the unconscious has become a question of life for us. People cannot stand too much reality. People will do anything, no matter how absurd, in order to avoid facing their own soul.
Resistance to the organized mass can be effected only by the man who is as well organized in his individuality as the mass itself.
Science is the tool of the Western mind and with it more doors can be opened than with bare hands. It is part and parcel of our knowledge and obscures our insight only when it holds that the understanding given by it is the only kind there is.
Sentimentality is a superstructure covering brutality.
Show me a sane man and I will cure him for you.
Shrinking away from death is something unhealthy and abnormal which robs the second half of life of its purpose.
Sometimes, indeed, there is such a discrepancy between the genius and his human qualities that one has to ask oneself whether a little less talent might not have been better.
Superstition and accident manifest the will of God.
The achievements which society rewards are won at the cost of diminution of personality.
The attainment of wholeness requires one to stake one’s whole being. Nothing less will do; there can be no easier conditions, no substitutes, no compromises.
The brain is viewed as an appendage of the genital glands. (Comment upon Freudian psychology) The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but by the play instinct acting from inner necessity. The creative mind plays with the objects it loves. The foundation of all mental illness is the avoidance of true suffering. The greatest and most important problems of life are all fundamentally insoluble. They can never be solved but only outgrown. The healthy man does not torture others — generally it is the tortured who turn into torturers.
The images of the unconscious place a great responsibility upon a man. Failure to understand them, or a shirking of ethical responsibility, deprives him of his wholeness and imposes a painful fragmentariness on his life.
The least of things with a meaning is worth more in life than the greatest of things without it.
The man who promises everything is sure to fulfil nothing, and everyone who promises too much is in danger of using evil means in order to carry out his promises, and is already on the road to perdition.
The most intense conflicts, if overcome, leave behind a sense of security and calm that is not easily disturbed. It is just these intense conflicts and their conflagration which are needed to produce valuable and lasting results.
The most terrifying thing is to accept oneself completely.
The pendulum of the mind alternates between sense and nonsense, not between right and wrong.
The psyche is a self-regulating system that maintains its equilibrium just as the body does. Every process that goes too far immediately and inevitably calls forth compensations, and without these their would be neither a normal metabolism nor a normal psyche. In this sense we can take the theory of compensation as a basic law of psychic behavior. Too little on one side results in too much on the other. Similarly, the relation between conscious and unconscious is compensatory.
The word "belief" is a difficult thing for me. I don't believe. I must have a reason for a certain hypothesis. Either I know a thing, and then I know it— I don't need to believe it.
There is no coming to consciousness without pain.
Through pride we are ever deceiving ourselves. But deep down below the surface of the average conscience a still, small voice says to us, something is out of tune. Understanding does not cure evil, but it is a definite help, inasmuch as one can cope with a comprehensible darkness.
We are born at a given moment, in a given place and, like vintage years of wine, we have the qualities of the year and of the season of which we are born. Astrology does not lay claim to anything more.
We are so captivated by and entangled in our subjective consciousness that we have forgotten the age-old fact that God speaks chiefly through dreams and visions.
We cannot change anything unless we accept it. Condemnation does not liberate, it oppresses.
We deem those happy who from the experience of life have learnt to bear its ills without being overcome by them.
We need more understanding of human nature, because the only real danger that exists is man himself...
What is the use of a religion without a mythos, since religion means, if anything, precisely that function which links us back to eternal myth?
When an inner situation is not made conscious, it appears outside as fate.
Whenever justice is uncertain and police spying and terror are at work, human beings fall into isolation, which, of course, is the aim and purpose of the dictator state, since it is based on the greatest possible accumulation of depotentiated social units.
You can exert no influence if you are not susceptible to influence.
Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart ... Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside, awakens.
Carl Jung Quotes on Psychological types
The groundwork for theories of psychological type were laid in 1921 with Carl Gustav Jung's pioneering work "Psychological Types". After its translation from German into English in 1923, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother began studying Jung's work, and in 1942 they published the first version of a test intended to identify which type category a person fit into, named the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
The following Carl Jung quotes are from prominent figures in the short history of psychological type who have based their theories, writings, and systemics on the four basic cognitive functions initially conceived of by Jung, which are sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling. Each of these will be in a certain attitude, either introverted or extraverted. Notably, Jung did not have the dichotomy of Judgement / Perception, which is a theory of Myers, and Jung's attention to the Conscious and Unconscious are not made explicit in Myers' theories. There is also skeptical speculation that Jung did not approve of Myers' test.
Carl Jung Quote
Introversion / Extraversion
"There is, finally, a third group, and here it is hard to say whether the motivation comes chiefly from within or without. This group is the most numerous and includes the less differentiated normal man" (Jung, 1971. Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types. In W. McGuire (Ed.) The collected works of C. G. Jung (Vol. 6), Bollinger Series XX. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.) Attitudes signifies expectation, and expectation always operates selectively and with a sense of direction.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 688, Page 415) When a function habitually predominates, a typical attitude is produced. According to the nature of the differentiated function, there will be constellations of contents that create a corresponding attitude.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 691, Page 417)
Only a limited number of contents can be held in the conscious field at the same time, and of these only a few can attain the highest grade of consciousness. The activity of consciousness is selective. Selection demands direction. But direction requires the exclusion of everything irrelevant. This is bound to make the conscious orientation one-sided. The contents that are excluded and inhibited by the chosen direction sink into the unconscious, where they form a counterweight to the conscious orientation.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 694, Page 419) Just as there is a relation to the outer object, an outer attitude, there is a relation to the inner object, an inner attitude.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 801, Page 466)
One cannot be introverted or extraverted without being so in every respect. For example, to be “introverted” means that everything in the psyche happens as it must happen according to the law of the introvert’s nature.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 939, Page 534) Introversion or extraversion, as the typical attitude, means an essential bias which conditions the whole psychic process, establishes the habitual mode of reaction, and thus determines not only the style of behaviour but also the quality of subjective experience. Not only that, it determines the kind of compensation the unconscious will produce.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 940, Page 534) But there is no energy unless there is a tension of opposites; hence it is necessary to discover the opposite to the attitude of the conscious mind.(Two Essays on Analytical Psychology by C G Jung : Para 78, Page 53)
The introvert does possess an extraverted attitude, but it is unconscious, because his conscious gaze is always turned to the subject.(Two Essays on Analytical Psychology by C G Jung : Para 81, Page 56) …experience shows that there is only one consciously directed function of adaptation.(On the Nature of the Psyche by C G Jung : Line 15, Page 25) The attitude of the unconscious as an effective complement to the conscious extraverted attitude has a definitely introverted character.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 570, Page 337) Generally speaking, the compensating attitude of the unconscious finds expression in the maintenance of the psychic equilibrium.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 575, Page 340) We call a mode of behaviour extraverted only when the mechanism of extraversion predominates. In these cases the most differentiated function is always employed in an extraverted way, where as the inferior functions are introverted; in other words, the superior function is the most conscious one and completely under conscious control, whereas the less differentiated functions are in part unconscious and far less under the control of consciousness.(Psychological Types by C G Jung : Para 575, Page 340) I made a discovery that was shocking to me, namely the fact of this extraverted personality, which every introvert carries within him in his unconscious, and which I had been projecting upon my friends to their detriment.(Analytical Psychology by C G Jung : Line 1, Page 32) Just as all energy proceeds from opposition, so the psyche too possesses its inner polarity, this being the indisputable prerequisite for its aliveness.(Memories, Dreams, Reflections : Line 22, Page 379)
Feeling / Thinking
The extravert’s [extraverted] feeling is always in harmony with objective values. … even when it appears not to be qualified by a concrete object, it is none the less still under the spell of traditional or generally accepted values of some kind. I may feel moved, for instance, to say that something is “beautiful” or “good”, not because I find it “beautiful” or “good” from my own subjective feeling about it, but because it is fitting and politic to call it so, since a contrary judgment would upset the general feeling situation. A feeling judgment of this kind is not by any means a pretense or a lie, it is simply an act of adjustment.(Psychological Types, CW6, paragraph 595. The Portable Jung, page 207) "But one can feel “correctly” only when feeling is not disturbed by anything else. Nothing disturbs feeling so much as thinking." (Psychological Types, CW6, paragraph 598. The Portable Jung, page 209) In so far as feeling is compliant and lets itself be subordinated, it has to support the conscious attitude and adapt to its aims. But this is possible only up to a point; part of it remains refractory and has to be repressed.
(Psychological Types, The Extraverted Thinking Type, CW6, paragraph 588. The Portable Jung, page 200.)
"FEELING. I am unable to support the psychological school that considers feeling a secondary phenomenon dependent on "representations" or sensations, but ... I regard it as an independent function sui generis" (723) "Feeling is primarily a process that ... imparts to the content a definite value in the sense of acceptance or rejection ("like" or "dislike")". (724)
"Even an "indifferent" sensation possesses a feeling-tone, namely that of indifference, which again expresses some sort of valuation. Hence feeling is a kind of judgment, differing from intellectual judgment in that its aim is not to establish conceptual relations but to set up a subjective criterion of acceptance or rejection. Valuation by feeling extends to every content of consciousness, of whatever kind it may be. When the intensity of feeling increases, it turns into an affect, i.e., a feeling state accompanied by marked physical innervations. Feeling is distinguished from affect by the fact that it produces no perceptible physical innervations, i.e., neither more nor less than an ordinary thinking process." (725)
"Ordinary, "simple" feeling is concrete, that is, it is mixed up with other functional elements, more particularly with sensations. In this case we call it affective or, as I have done in this book, feeling-sensation, by which I mean an almost inseparable amalgam of feeling and sensation elements. This characteristic amalgamation is found wherever feeling is still an undifferentiated function, and is most evident in the psyche of a neurotic with differentiated thinking. Although feeling is, in itself, an independent function, it can easily become dependent on another function – thinking, for instance; it is then a mere concomitant of thinking, and is not repressed only in so far as it accommodates itself to the thinking processes."
(726) (Psychological Types, CW6, DEFINITIONS, paragraphs 723-726.)
Hence his thinking is of value for his contemporaries only so long as it is manifestly and intelligibly related to the known facts of the time. Once it has become mythological, it ceases to be relevant and runs on in itself.
(Psychological Types, The Introverted Thinking Type, CW6, paragraph 637. The Portable Jung, page 244.)
Conscious / Unconscious
"It should not be imagined that the unconscious lies permanently buried under so many overlying strata that it can only be uncovered, so to speak, by a laborious process of excavation. On the contrary, there is a constant influx of unconscious contents into the conscious psychological process, to such a degree that at times it is hard for the observer to decide which character traits belong to the conscious and which to the unconscious personality. … Naturally it also depends very largely on the attitude of the observer whether he seizes hold of the conscious or the unconscious character of the personality. … We must observe which function is completely under conscious control, and which functions have a haphazard and spontaneous character … the latter possess infantile and primitive traits.
(Psychological Types, CW6, paragraph 576. The Portable Jung, pages 191-192.)
"Discrimination is the sine qua non of cognition. But discrimination means splitting up the contents of consciousness into discrete functions. Therefore, if we wish to define the psychological peculiarity of a man in terms that will satisfy not only our own subjective judgment but also the object judged, we must take as our criterion that state or attitude which is felt by the object to be the conscious, normal condition. Accordingly, we shall make his conscious motives our first concern, while eliminating as far as possible our own arbitrary interpretations."(Psychological Types, CW6, paragraph 891.)
Other Jung quotes on psychological types
"The term Inferior Function is used to denote the function that lags behind in the process of differentiation. Experience shows that it is practically impossible, owing to adverse circumstances in general, for anyone to develop all of his psychological functions simultaneously. The demands of society compel a man to apply himself first and foremost to the diffferentiation of the function with which he is best equipped by nature, or which will secure him the greatest social success. As a general rule a man identifies more or less completely with the most favored and hence the most developed function. It is this that gives rise to psychological types. As a consequence of this one-sided development, one or more functions are neccessarily retarded. These functions may properly be called inferior in a psychological, not a psychopathalogical sense, since they are in no way morbid but merely backward as compared with the favored function. Although the inferior function may be conscious as a phenomenon, its true significance nevertheless remains unrecognized. It behaves like many repressed or insufficiently appreciated contents, which are partly conscious and partly unconscious, just as, very often, one knows a certain person from his outward appearance but does not know him as he really is." (C. G. Jung (1934). Psychological Types, pages 450-451) We know, however, that the mind cannot be a tabularasa...certain categories of thinking are given a priori; they are antecedent to all experience and appear with the first act of thought, of which they are preformed determinants... The new-born brain is an immensely old instrument fitted out for quite specific purposes, which does not apperceive passively but actively arranges the experiences of its own accord and enforces certain conclusions and judgements. They are...a kind of pre-existent ground plan...or inherited functional possibilities which, nevertheless, exclude other possibilities or at any rate limit them to a very great extent. They are...like invisible stage managers behind the scenes. (C.G. Jung (1934). Psychological Types, Section 512) How fantasy is assessed by psychology, so long as this remains merely science, is illustrated by the well-known views of Freud and Adler. The characteristic animosity between the adherents of the two standpoints arises from the fact that either standpoint necessarily involves a devaluation and disparagement of the other. So long as the radical difference ... is not recognized, either side must naturally hold its respective theory to be universally valid.
(Psychological Types, CW6, paragraph 88.)
"In complete contrast to the old system of classification by temperaments, the new typology begins with the explicit agreement neither to allow oneself to be judged by affect nor to judge others by it, since no one can declare himself finally identical with his affect." (Psychological Types, CW6, PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES lecture 1923, paragraph 889) "... begin with the explicit agreement neither to allow oneself to be judged by affect nor to judge others by it ... the affect is considered an exceptional state whose qualities are represented either as a falsification of the “real” personality or as not belonging to it as an authentic attribute. What then is the “real” personality? Obviously, it is partly that which everyone distinguishes in himself as separate from affect, and partly that in everyone which is dismissed as inauthentic in the judgment of others. … In the affective state it [the ego] is unfree, driven, coerced. By contrast, the normal state is a state of free will, with all one’s powers at one’s disposal. In other words, the affective state is unproblematical, while the normal state is problematical: it comprises both the problem and possibility of free choice. In this latter state an understanding becomes possible, because in it alone can one discern one’s motives and gain self-knowledge.(Psychological Types, CW6, paragraphs 889,891.)
" AFFECT. By the term affect I mean a state of feeling characterized by marked physical innervation on the one hand and a peculiar disturbance of the ideational process on the other. I use emotion as synonymous with affect. I distinguish ... feeling from affect, in spite of the fact that the dividing line is fluid, since every feeling, after attaining a certain strength, releases physical innervations, thus becoming an affect. For practical reasons, however, it is advisable to distinguish affect from feeling, since feeling can be a voluntarily disposable function, whereas affect is usually not. Similarly, affect is clearly distinguished from feeling by quite perceptible physical innervations, while feeling for the most part lacks them, or else their intensity is so slight that they can be demonstrated only by the most delicate instruments ..." (Psychological Types, CW6, DEFINITIONS, paragraph 681.)
Isabel Briggs Myers on Carl Jung and psychological types
(Extraverted Feeling) "Its soundness and value do not lie in the individual, but outside in the collective ideals of the community, which are usually accepted without question. Its goal is the formation and maintenance of easy and harmonious emotional relationships with other people. "(Gifts Differing (1980), by Isabel Briggs Myers, page 79)
"These basic differences concern the way people "prefer" to use their minds, specifically the way they perceive and the way they make judgements. "Perceiving" is here understood to include the processes of becoming aware of things, people, occurrences and ideas. "Judgment" includes the processes of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. Together, perception and judgement make up a large portion of a person's total mental activity. They govern much of their outer behavior, because perception -- by definition -- determines what people see in a situation and their judgment determines what they decide to do about it. Thus it is reasonable that basic differences in perception or judgment should result in correpspdonding differences in behavior. (Isabel Briggs Myers, Gifts Differing, page 1) "This book is written in the belief that many problems might be dealt with more successfully if approached in the light of C.G. Jung's theory of psychological types. The first English translation of his Psychological Types was published by Harcourt brace in 1923. My mother, Katharine C. Briggs, introduced it into our family and made it part of our lives. She and I waited a long time for someone to devise an instrument that would reflect not only one's preference for extraversion or introversion, but one's preferred kind of perception and judgement as well. In the summer of 1942 we undertook to do it ourselves. Since then the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has yielded a wide range of information about the practical bearing of type.
(Isabel Briggs Myers, Gifts Differing, Preface)
"In the darkest days of World War II when the Germans were rolling irresistibly along and my shoulders ached with trying to hold them back and a horrible sinking feeling lived in the pit of my stomach, the thought came to me one day (I was making my bed at the time) that by letting them spoil my life that I way I was helping them win, bringing destruction to pass by my own doing. So I stopped, just like that. I made up my mind that there was no logical justification for turning possible future unhappiness into certain present unhappiness by being afraid of it. Do what you can to make a better world, but don't throw away one day or one minute of the world you've got. What I did, as it turned out, was the Type Indicator (
Isabel Briggs Myers (1970), personal letter to Mary McCaulley)
Other Quotes on Jung
"We know that Jung once told a colleague that his Dominant function was Introverted Thinking. That means he was either an ISTP or an INTP. Jung was certainly abstract rather than concrete, so it seems safe to hold him up as an example of an INTP." Vol. 2 No. 3 (Winter 1985) of The Type Reporter (page 10) Between extraversion and introversion there is also a compensatory relation. Where consciousness is extraverted, the unconscious is introverted and conversely.(The Psychology of C G Jung by Jolande Jacobi : Line 34, Page 19) The extravert has an introverted unconscious, though precisely because this side of him remains unconscious, its introversion takes on undifferentiated and compulsive or instinctual form.
(The Psychology of C G Jung by Jolande Jacobi : Line 4, Page 20)
The psyche consists of two complementary but antithetical spheres: consciousness and the unconscious.
(The Psychology of C G Jung by Jolande Jacobi : Line 5, Page 5)
Extraverted sensation + thinking as an auxiliary function. In this type……cooperation with the main function is made easier because of thinking’s similar attitude (extraversion).(Personality by C A Meier : Line 1, Page 32) "So I have long believed that personality, like anatomy, comes about not by an integration of elements, but by differentiation within an already integrated whole, emerging gradually as an individuated configuration."
(David Keirsey, Please Understand Me II, page 31)